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    Artificial intelligence for automated detection of diabetic foot ulcers: A real-world proof-of-concept clinical evaluation

    Cassidy, B ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3741-8120, Yap, Moi Hoon ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7681-4287, Pappachan, JM ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0886-5255, Ahmad, N, Haycocks, S ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4352-5985, O'Shea, C, Fernandez, CJ ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1171-5525, Chacko, E, Jacob, K and Reeves, ND ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9213-4580 (2023) Artificial intelligence for automated detection of diabetic foot ulcers: A real-world proof-of-concept clinical evaluation. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 205. 110951. ISSN 0168-8227

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    Objective: Conduct a multicenter proof-of-concept clinical evaluation to assess the accuracy of an artificial intelligence system on a smartphone for automated detection of diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: The evaluation was undertaken with patients with diabetes (n = 81) from September 2020 to January 2021. A total of 203 foot photographs were collected using a smartphone, analysed using the artificial intelligence system, and compared against expert clinician judgement, with 162 images showing at least one ulcer, and 41 showing no ulcer. Sensitivity and specificity of the system against clinician decisions was determined and inter- and intra-rater reliability analysed. Results: Predictions/decisions made by the system showed excellent sensitivity (0.9157) and high specificity (0.8857). Merging of intersecting predictions improved specificity to 0.9243. High levels of inter- and intra-rater reliability for clinician agreement on the ability of the artificial intelligence system to detect diabetic foot ulcers was also demonstrated (Kα > 0.8000 for all studies, between and within raters). Conclusions: We demonstrate highly accurate automated diabetic foot ulcer detection using an artificial intelligence system with a low-end smartphone. This is the first key stage in the creation of a fully automated diabetic foot ulcer detection and monitoring system, with these findings underpinning medical device development.

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