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    Diabetic foot ulcer classification using mapped binary patterns and convolutional neural networks

    Al-Garaawi, Nora, Ebsim, Raja, Yap, Moi Hoon ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7681-4287 and Alharan, Abbas F.H. (2022) Diabetic foot ulcer classification using mapped binary patterns and convolutional neural networks. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 140. 105055. ISSN 0010-4825

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    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a major complication of diabetes and can lead to lower limb amputation if not treated early and properly. In addition to the traditional clinical approaches, in recent years, research on automation using computer vision and machine learning methods plays an important role in DFU classification, achieving promising successes. The most recent automatic approaches to DFU classification are based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs), using solely RGB images as input. In this paper, we present a CNN-based DFU classification method in which we showed that feeding an appropriate feature (texture information) to the CNN model provides a complementary performance to the standard RGB-based deep models of the DFU classification task, and better performance can be obtained if both RGB images and their texture features are combined and used as input to the CNN. To this end, the proposed method consists of two main stages. The first stage extracts texture information from the RGB image using the mapped binary patterns technique. The obtained mapped image is used to aid the second stage in recognizing DFU as it contains texture information of ulcer. The stack of RGB and mapped binary patterns images are fed to the CNN as a tensor input or as a fused image, which is a linear combination of RGB and mapped binary patterns images. The performance of the proposed approach was evaluated using two recently published DFU datasets: the Part-A dataset of healthy and unhealthy (DFU) cases [17] and Part-B dataset of ischaemia and infection cases [18]. The results showed that the proposed methods provided better performance than the state-of-the-art CNN-based methods with 0.981% (AUC) and 0.952% (F-Measure) on the Part-A dataset, 0.995% (AUC) and 0.990% (F-measure) for the Part-B ischaemia dataset, and 0.820% (AUC) and 0.744% (F-measure) on the Part-B infection dataset.

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