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    Geographically and temporally weighted co-location quotient: an analysis of spatiotemporal crime patterns in Greater Manchester

    Li, Ling, Cheng, Jianquan ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9778-9009, Bannister, Jon ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1350-510X and Mai, Xiongfa (2022) Geographically and temporally weighted co-location quotient: an analysis of spatiotemporal crime patterns in Greater Manchester. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 36 (5). pp. 918-942. ISSN 1365-8816

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    Incident data, a form of big data frequently used in urban studies, are characterised by point features with high spatial and temporal resolution and categorical values. In contrast to panel data, such spatial data pooled over time reflect multi-directional spatial effects but only unidirectional temporal effects, which are challenging to analyse. This paper presents an innovative approach to address this challenge – a geographically and temporally weighted co-location quotient which includes global and local computation, a method to calculate a spatiotemporal weight matrix and a significance test using Monte Carlo simulation. This new approach is used to identify spatio-temporal crime patterns across Greater Manchester in 2016 from open source recorded crime data. The results show that this approach is suitable for the analysis and visualisation of spatio-temporal dependence and heterogeneity in categorical spatial data pooled over time. It is particularly useful for detecting symmetrical spatio-temporal co-location patterns and mapping local clusters. The method also addresses the unbalanced temporal scale problem caused by unidirectional temporal data representation and explores potential impacts. The empirical evidence of the spatiotemporal crime patterns might usefully be deployed to inform the development of criminological theory by helping to disentangle the relationships between crime and the urban environment.

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