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Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 and Health Risks Assessment in the Industrial Districts of Chelyabinsk, South Ural Region, Russia

Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja, Krupnova, Tatyana, Rakova, Olga, Bondarenko, Kirill, Saifullin, Artem, Popova, Darya and Godoi, Ricardo HM (2022) Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 and Health Risks Assessment in the Industrial Districts of Chelyabinsk, South Ural Region, Russia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18 (34).

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Abstract

Air pollution impacts all populations globally, indiscriminately and has site-specific variation and characteristics. Airborne particulate matter (PM) levels were monitored in a typical industrial Russian city, Chelyabinsk in three destinations, one characterized by high traffic volumes and two by industrial zone emissions. The mass concentration and trace metal content of PM2.5 and PM10 were obtained from samples collected during four distinct seasons of 2020. The mean 24-h PM10 ranged between 6 and 64 μg/m3. 24-h PM2.5 levels were reported from 5 to 56 μg/m3. About half of the 24-h PM10 and most of the PM2.5 values in Chelyabinsk were higher than the WHO recommendations. The mean PM2.5/PM10 ratio was measured at 0.85, indicative of anthropogenic input. To evaluate the Al, Fe, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentration in PM2.5 and PM10, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used. Fe (337–732 ng/m3) was the most abundant component in PM2.5 and PM10 samples while Zn (77–206 ng/m3), Mn (10–96 ng/m3), and Pb (11–41 ng/m3) had the highest concentrations among trace elements. Total non-carcinogenic risks for children were found higher than 1, indicating possible health hazards. This study also presents that the carcinogenic risk for As, Cr, Co, Cd, Ni, and Pb were observed higher than the acceptable limit (1 × 10−6).

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