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    An IoT enabled system for enhanced air quality monitoring and prediction on the edge

    Moursi, Ahmed Sami, El-Fishawy, Nawal, Djahel, Soufiene ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1286-7037 and Ahmed Shouman, Marwa (2021) An IoT enabled system for enhanced air quality monitoring and prediction on the edge. Complex & Intelligent Systems, 7 (6). pp. 2923-2947. ISSN 2199-4536

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    Air pollution is a major issue resulting from the excessive use of conventional energy sources in developing countries and worldwide. Particulate Matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) is the most dangerous air pollutant invading the human respiratory system and causing lung and heart diseases. Therefore, innovative air pollution forecasting methods and systems are required to reduce such risk. To that end, this paper proposes an Internet of Things (IoT) enabled system for monitoring and predicting PM2.5 concentration on both edge devices and the cloud. This system employs a hybrid prediction architecture using several Machine Learning (ML) algorithms hosted by Nonlinear AutoRegression with eXogenous input (NARX). It uses the past 24 h of PM2.5, cumulated wind speed and cumulated rain hours to predict the next hour of PM2.5. This system was tested on a PC to evaluate cloud prediction and a Raspberry Pi to evaluate edge devices’ prediction. Such a system is essential, responding quickly to air pollution in remote areas with low bandwidth or no internet connection. The performance of our system was assessed using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE), coefficient of determination (R2), Index of Agreement (IA), and duration in seconds. The obtained results highlighted that NARX/LSTM achieved the highest R2 and IA and the least RMSE and NRMSE, outperforming other previously proposed deep learning hybrid algorithms. In contrast, NARX/XGBRF achieved the best balance between accuracy and speed on the Raspberry Pi.

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