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The use of virtual reality and augmented reality to enhance cardio-pulmonary resuscitation: a scoping review.

Kuyt, Katherine and Park, Sang-Hee and Chang, Todd P and Jung, Timothy and MacKinnon, Ralph (2021) The use of virtual reality and augmented reality to enhance cardio-pulmonary resuscitation: a scoping review. Advances in Simulation, 6. ISSN 2059-0628

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Abstract

Background and objective Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have been proposed as novel methods to enhance cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance and increase engagement with CPR training. A scoping review was conducted to map the global evolution of these new approaches to CPR training, to assess their efficacy and determine future directions to meet gaps in current knowledge. Methods A standardised five-stage scoping methodology was used to (1) identify the research question, (2) identify relevant studies, (3) select the studies, (4) chart the data and (5) summarise the findings. The Kirkpatrick model levels of evidence were used to chart and assess the efficacy of each intervention reported. A multi-pronged search term strategy was used to search the Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE databases up to June 2020. Results A total of 42 articles were included in this review. The first relevant paper identified was published in 2009 and based on VR, from 2014 onwards there was a large increase in the volume of work being published regarding VR and AR uses in CPR training. This review reports Kirkpatrick level one to three evidence for the use of VR/AR–CPR. Inconsistencies in the specific language, keywords used and methodologies are highlighted. Conclusion VR and AR technologies have shown great potential in the area of CPR, and there is continuing evidence of new novel applications and concepts. As VR/AR research into CPR reaches an inflection point, it is key to bring collaboration and consistency to the wider research community, to enable the growth of the area and ease of access to the wider medical community.

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