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    Differential signalling mechanisms predisposing primary human skeletal muscle cells to altered proliferation and differentiation: roles of IGF-I and TNFα

    Foulstone, Emily, Huser, Camille, Crown, Anna L., Holly, Jeff and Stewart, Claire E. (2004) Differential signalling mechanisms predisposing primary human skeletal muscle cells to altered proliferation and differentiation: roles of IGF-I and TNFα. Experimental Cell Research, 294 (1). pp. 223-225. ISSN 1090-2422

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    Abstract

    To gain a clearer insight into the mechanisms of skeletal muscle cell growth, differentiation and maintenance, we have developed a primary adult human skeletal muscle cell model. Cells were cultured from biopsies of rectus muscle from the anterior abdominal wall of patients undergoing elective surgery. Under differentiating conditions, all cultures formed myotubes, irrespective of initial myoblast number. Stimulation with both IGF-I and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) increased cellular proliferation but while IGF-I subsequently increased myoblast differentiation, via both hyperplasia and hypertrophy, TNFα inhibited the initiation of differentiation, but did not induce apoptosis. Addition of IGF-I stimulated both the MAP kinase and the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) signalling pathways while treatment with TNFα preferentially led to MAP kinase activation although with a very different profile of activation compared to IGF-I. Data using the MEK inhibitor UO126 showed MAP kinase activity is not only needed for cellular proliferation but is also necessary for both the initiation and the progression of primary human myoblast differentiation. The PI 3-kinase pathway is also involved in differentiation, but activation of this pathway could not relieve inhibition of differentiation by TNFα or UO126. Our results show that the controlled temporal and amplitude of activation of multiple signalling pathways is needed for successful myoblast differentiation.

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