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    Disposable bismuth oxide screen printed electrodes for the high throughput screening of heavy metals

    Kadara, Rashid O., Jenkinson, Norman and Banks, Craig E. (2009) Disposable bismuth oxide screen printed electrodes for the high throughput screening of heavy metals. Electroanalysis, 21 (22). pp. 2410-2414. ISSN 1521-4109

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    Abstract

    We present a simplified approach for the trace screening of toxic heavy metals utilizing bismuth oxide screen printed electrodes. The use of bismuth oxide instead of toxic mercury films facilitates the reliable sensing of lead(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II). A linear range over 5 to 150 g L-1 with detection limits of 2.5 and 5 g L-1 are readily observed for cadmium and lead in 0.1 M HCl, respectively. Conducting a simultaneous multi-elemental voltammetric detection of zinc, cadmium and lead in a higher pH medium (0.1 M sodium acetate solution) exhibited a linear range between 10 and 150 g L-1 with detection limits of 5, 10 and 30 g L-1 for cadmium, lead and zinc respectively. The sensor is greatly simplified over those recently reported such as bismuth nanoparticle modified electrodes and bismuth film coated screen printed electrodes. The scope of applications of this sensor with the inherent advances in electroanalysis coupled with the negliable toxicity of bismuth is extensive allowing high throughput electroanalysis.

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