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    Hip and shoulder rotations during the golf swing of sub-10 handicap players

    Burden, Adrian, Grimshaw, Paul N. and Wallace, Eric S. (1998) Hip and shoulder rotations during the golf swing of sub-10 handicap players. Journal of sports sciences, 16 (2). pp. 165-176. ISSN 1466-447X

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    The motion of the shoulders, arms and club during the golf swing has often been explained using the "double pendulum" model. Despite subsequent explanations for the actions of the distal segments of the body, the coordination of more proximal segments during the swing is less well understood. To ascertain the pattern of centre of mass motion and hip and shoulder rotations that result in a high clubhead speed at impact, the swing used in driving from the tee of eight low-handicap golfers was videotaped and analysed using three-dimensional techniques. The shoulders rotated in excess of 90o during the backswing and, in 75% of the golfers, continued rotating away from the flag as the hips began turning back towards it. This sequential pattern of hip and shoulder rotation indicated that they conformed to the "summation of speed" principle, which is hypothesized to result in a greater torque being applied to the club before impact. The speed of the drive was also benefited by the centre of mass shifting exclusively in the intended direction of ball flight during impact.

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