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    All-trans retinoic acid-induced downregulation of annexin II expression in myeloid leukaemia cell lines is not confined to acute promyelocytic leukaemia

    Gilmore, William S., Olwill, Shane A., McGlynn, Hugh and Alexander, H. Denis (2005) All-trans retinoic acid-induced downregulation of annexin II expression in myeloid leukaemia cell lines is not confined to acute promyelocytic leukaemia. British journal of haematology, 131 (2). pp. 258-264. ISSN 1365-2141

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    Abstract

    Most acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) patients suffer from disordered haemostasis. APL can be treated successfully in most instances by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) therapy, which induces endpoint maturation of the leukaemic promyelocytes with the characteristic t(15;17). Annexin II (AnII), a profibrinolytic protein, has been implicated in the bleeding manifestation seen in APL. Our group has shown previously that high levels of AnII are expressed on other acute myeloid leukaemia subtypes that are sometimes associated with disordered haemostasis, albeit less frequently than APL. This study examined the effects of ATRA on AnII expression and cell differentiation, on myeloid leukaemia cell lines to determine whether a regulatory influence on AnII may contribute to the return of haemostatic stability in APL following treatment. The results confirmed that AnII expression in the APL cell line (NB4) was significantly downregulated in response to ATRA (P < 0·01), with associated morphological and immunophenotypical evidence of myeloid differentiation. ATRA also downregulated AnII expression on other myeloid cell lines, albeit to a lesser extent than observed on NB4 cells. The results provide evidence that ATRA may resolve the hyperfibrinolysis in APL by downregulation of AnII expression.

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