Manchester Metropolitan University's Research Repository

    Constrained entrepreneurship in UK agriculture: a Weberian analysis

    Gittins, Peter, McElwee, Gerard ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6905-4443 and Lever, John ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2188-8518 (2022) Constrained entrepreneurship in UK agriculture: a Weberian analysis. Journal of Rural Studies, 95. pp. 495-504. ISSN 0743-0167

    Accepted Version
    Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

    Download (455kB) | Preview


    This conceptual paper draws on Max Weber's Iron Cage metaphor to explore its value in understanding how farmers are responding to the institutional contexts that influence and constrain entrepreneurial activities. We create Ideal Types of farmers, farm businesses and farm business strategies to provide a nuanced understanding into the heterogeneous ways Upland farmers are navigating and responding to ever-shifting Constrained Institutional Contexts (CIC's). We examine Weber's original cage metaphor, and draw on its limitations by framing it alternatively to provide a unique lens to examine the UK farming context. We add clarity into how farmers are responding to the challenges arising from the contexts within which they operate, providing a strong theoretical underpinning that can be used by other scholars to examine constrained rural entrepreneurship.

    Impact and Reach


    Activity Overview
    6 month trend
    6 month trend

    Additional statistics for this dataset are available via IRStats2.


    Repository staff only

    Edit record Edit record