Manchester Metropolitan University's Research Repository

    A Longitudinal Clinical Trajectory Analysis Examining the Accumulation of Co-morbidity in People with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) Compared with Non-T2D Individuals

    Heald, Adrian ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9537-4050, Qin, Rui, Williams, Richard, Warner-Levy, John, Narayanan, Ram Prakash, Fernandez, Israel, Peng, Yonghong ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5508-1819, Gibson, J Martin, McCay, Kevin ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3790-1043, Anderson, Simon G and Ollier, William (2023) A Longitudinal Clinical Trajectory Analysis Examining the Accumulation of Co-morbidity in People with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) Compared with Non-T2D Individuals. Diabetes Therapy, 14 (11). pp. 1903-1913. ISSN 1869-6953

    Published Version
    Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial.

    Download (545kB) | Preview


    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is commonly associated with an increasing complexity of multimorbidity. While some progress has been made in identifying genetic and non-genetic risk factors for T2D, understanding the longitudinal clinical history of individuals before/after T2D diagnosis may provide additional insights. Methods: In this study, we utilised longitudinal data from the DARE (Diabetes Alliance for Research in England) study to examine the trajectory of clinical conditions in individuals with and without T2D. Data from 1932 individuals (T2D n = 1196 vs. matched non-T2D controls n = 736) were extracted and subjected to trajectory analysis over a period of up to 50 years (25 years pre-diagnosis/25 years post-diagnosis). We also analysed the cumulative proportion of people with diagnosed coronary artery disease (CAD) in their general practice (GP) record with an analysis of lower respiratory tract infection (RTI) as a comparator group. Results: The mean age of diagnosis of T2D was 52.6 (95% confidence interval 52.0–53.4) years. In the years leading up to T2D diagnosis, individuals who eventually received a T2D diagnosis consistently exhibited a considerable increase in several clinical phenotypes. Additionally, immediately prior to T2D diagnosis, a significantly greater prevalence of hypertension (35%)/RTI (34%)/heart conditions (17%)/eye, nose, throat infection (19%) and asthma (12%) were observed. The corresponding trajectory of each of these conditions was much less dramatic in the matched controls. Post-T2D diagnosis, proportions of T2D individuals exhibiting hypertension/chronic kidney disease/retinopathy/infections climbed rapidly before plateauing. At the last follow-up by quintile of disadvantage, the proportion (%) of people with diagnosed CAD was 6.4% for quintile 1 (least disadvantaged) and 11% for quintile 5 (F = 3.4, p = 0.01 for the difference between quintiles). Conclusion: These findings provide novel insights into the onset/natural progression of T2D, suggesting an early phase of inflammation-related disease activity before any clinical diagnosis of T2D is made. Measures that reduce social inequality have the potential in the longer term to reduce the social gradient in health outcomes reported here.

    Impact and Reach


    Activity Overview
    6 month trend
    6 month trend

    Additional statistics for this dataset are available via IRStats2.


    Repository staff only

    Edit record Edit record