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    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes/carbon black/rPLA for high-performance conductive additive manufacturing filament and the simultaneous detection of acetaminophen and phenylephrine

    Crapnell, Robert D ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8701-3933, Arantes, Iana VS, Camargo, Jéssica R, Bernalte, Elena, Whittingham, Matthew J, Janegitz, Bruno C, Paixão, Thiago RLC and Banks, Craig E ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0756-9764 (2024) Multi-walled carbon nanotubes/carbon black/rPLA for high-performance conductive additive manufacturing filament and the simultaneous detection of acetaminophen and phenylephrine. Mikrochimica Acta, 191 (2). 96. ISSN 0026-3672

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    Abstract

    The combination of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and carbon black (CB) is presented to produce a high-performance electrically conductive recycled additive manufacturing filament. The filament and subsequent additively manufactured electrodes were characterised by TGA, XPS, Raman, and SEM and showed excellent low-temperature flexibility. The MWCNT/CB filament exhibited an improved electrochemical performance compared to an identical in-house produced bespoke filament using only CB. A heterogeneous electrochemical rate constant, of 1.71 (± 0.19) × 10−3 cm s−1 was obtained, showing an almost six times improvement over the commonly used commercial conductive CB/PLA. The filament was successfully tested for the simultaneous determination of acetaminophen and phenylephrine, producing linear ranges of 5–60 and 5–200 μM, sensitivities of 0.05 μA μM−1 and 0.14 μA μM−1, and limits of detection of 0.04 μM and 0.38 μM, respectively. A print-at-home device is presented where a removable lid comprised of rPLA can be placed onto a drinking vessel and the working, counter, and reference components made from our bespoke MWCNT/CB filament. The print-at-home device was successfully used to determine both compounds within real pharmaceutical products, with recoveries between 87 and 120% over a range of three real samples. This work paves the way for fabricating new highly conductive filaments using a combination of carbon materials with different morphologies and physicochemical properties and their application to produce additively manufactured electrodes with greatly improved electrochemical performance.

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