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    Evaluating the translucency, surface roughness, and cytotoxicity of a PMMA acrylic denture base reinforced with bioactive glasses

    Alhotan, Abdulaziz ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9036-0485, Raszewski, Zbigniew ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1735-3879, Chojnacka, Katarzyna, Mikulewicz, Marcin, Kulbacka, Julita ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8272-5440, Alaqeely, Razan ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6461-4552, Mirdad, Amani and Haider, Julfikar ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7010-8285 (2023) Evaluating the translucency, surface roughness, and cytotoxicity of a PMMA acrylic denture base reinforced with bioactive glasses. Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 15 (1). 16. ISSN 2079-4983

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    Abstract

    The colonisation of the surface of removable acrylic dentures by various types of microorganisms can lead to the development of various diseases. Therefore, the creation of a bioactive material is highly desirable. This study aimed to develop a denture base material designed to release bioactive ions into the oral environment during use. Four types of bioactive glasses (BAG)—S53P4, Biomin F, 45S5, and Biomin C—were incorporated into the PMMA acrylic resin, with each type constituting 20 wt.% (10 wt.% non-silanised and 10% silanised) of the mixture, while PMMA acrylic resin served as the control group. The specimens were subsequently immersed in distilled water, and pH measurements of the aqueous solutions were taken every seven days for a total of 38 days. Additionally, surface roughness and translucency measurements were recorded both after preparation and following seven days of immersion in distilled water. The cytotoxicity of these materials on human fibroblast cells was evaluated after 24 and 48 h using Direct Contact and MTT assays. Ultimately, the elemental composition of the specimens was determined through energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. In general, the pH levels of water solutions containing BAG-containing acrylics gradually increased over the storage period, reaching peak values after 10 days. Notably, S53P4 glass exhibited the most significant increase, with pH levels rising from 5.5 to 7.54. Surface roughness exhibited minimal changes upon immersion in distilled water, while a slight decrease in material translucency was observed, except for Biomin C. However, significant differences in surface roughness and translucency were observed among some of the BAG-embedded specimens under both dry and wet conditions. The composition of elements declared by the glass manufacturer was confirmed by EDX analysis. Importantly, cytotoxicity analysis revealed that specimens containing BAGs, when released into the environment, did not adversely affect the growth of human gingival fibroblast cells after 48 h of exposure. This suggests that PMMA acrylics fabricated with BAGs have the potential to release ions into the environment and can be considered biocompatible materials. Further clinical trials are warranted to explore the practical applications of these materials as denture base materials.

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