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    Are inter-limb differences in change of direction velocity and angle associated with inter-limb differences in kinematics and kinetics following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?

    McFadden, Ciarán, Siobhán, Strike and Daniels, Katherine AJ ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8134-6764 (2024) Are inter-limb differences in change of direction velocity and angle associated with inter-limb differences in kinematics and kinetics following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? Gait and Posture, 109. pp. 1-8. ISSN 0966-6362

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    Abstract

    BACKGROUND Quantifying inter-limb differences in kinematics and kinetics during change of direction is proposed as a means of monitoring rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Velocity and centre of mass (CoM) deflection angle are fundamental task descriptors that influence kinematics and kinetics during change of direction. Inter-limb differences in approach velocity and CoM deflection angle have been identified following ACLR and may contribute to the presence of inter-limb differences in kinematics and kinetics during change of direction. RESEARCH QUESTION The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of variance in kinematic and kinetic inter-limb differences attributable to inter-limb differences in approach velocity and centre of mass deflection angle during a change of direction task. METHODS A cohort of 192 patients (male, 23.8 ± 3.6 years, 6.3 ± 0.4 months post primary ACLR) completed a pre-planned 90° change of direction task on both their operated and non-operated limb. Inter-limb differences in approach velocity and CoM deflection angle were calculated alongside lower-extremity kinematic and kinetic variables. The relationship between inter-limb differences in task-level variables and inter-limb differences in kinematic and kinetic variables was examined using linear regression models. Kinematic and kinetic inter-limb differences were adjusted for inter-limb differences in approach velocity and CoM deflection angle. Adjusted and unadjusted inter-limb differences were submitted to one sample t-tests. RESULTS Inter-limb differences in approach velocity and centre of mass deflection angle explained 3 – 60% of the variance in kinematic and kinetic inter-limb differences. Statistical inferences remained consistent between adjusted and unadjusted conditions with the exception of hip flexion angle. SIGNIFICANCE Inter-limb differences in task-level features explain a large proportion of the variance in inter-limb differences in several kinematic and kinetic variables. Accounting for this variation reduced the magnitude of kinematic and kinetic inter-limb differences comparable to those previously observed in normative cohorts.

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