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    Author verification of Nahj Al-Balagha

    Sarwar, Raheem ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0640-807X and Mohamed, Emad (2022) Author verification of Nahj Al-Balagha. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, 37 (4). pp. 1210-1222. ISSN 2055-7671

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    The primary purpose of this article is author verification of the Nahj Al-Balagha, a book attributed to Imam Ali and over which Sunni and Shi’i Muslims are proposing different theories. Given the morphologically complex nature of Arabic, we test whether morphological segmentation, applied to the book and works by the two authors suspected by Sunnis to have authored the texts, can be used for author verification of the Nahj Al-Balagha. Our findings indicate that morphological segmentation may lead to slightly better results than whole words and that regardless of the feature sets, the three sub-corpora cluster into three distinct groups using principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, multi-dimensional scaling, and bootstrap consensus trees. Supervised classification methods such as Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machines, k Nearest Neighbours, Random Forests, AdaBoost, Bagging, and Decision Trees confirm the same results, which is a clear indication that (1) the book is internally consistent and can thus be attributed to a single person and (2) it was not authored by either of the suspected authors.

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