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    3D printed denture base material: the effect of incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles and artificial ageing on the physical and mechanical properties

    Altarazi, Ahmed, Haider, Julfikar ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7010-8285, Alhotan, Abdulaziz, Silikas, Nick and Devlin, Hugh (2023) 3D printed denture base material: the effect of incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles and artificial ageing on the physical and mechanical properties. Dental Materials, 39 (12). pp. 1122-1136. ISSN 0109-5641

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    Objectives To evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of three-dimensional (3D) printed denture base resin incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), subjected to a physical ageing process. Methods Acrylic denture base samples were prepared by a Stereolithography (SLA) 3D printing technique reinforced with different concentrations (0.10, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75) of silanated TiO2 NPs. The resulting nanocomposite materials were characterized in terms of degree of conversion (DC), and sorption/solubility flexural strength, impact strength, Vickers hardness and Martens hardness and compared with unmodified resin and conventional heat-cured (HC) material. The nanocomposites were reassessed after subjecting them to ageing in artificial saliva. A fractured surface was studied under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results The addition of TiO2 NPs into 3D-printed resin significantly improved flexural strength/modulus, impact strength, Vickers hardness, and DC, while also slightly enhancing Martens hardness compared to the unmodified resin. Sorption values did not show any improvements, while solubility was reduced significantly. The addition of 0.10 wt% NPs provided the highest performance amongst the other concentrations, and 0.75 wt% NPs showed the lowest. Although ageing degraded the materials’ performance to a certain extent, the trends remained the same. SEM images showed a homogenous distribution of the NPs at lower concentrations (0.10 and 0.25 wt%) but revealed agglomeration of the NPs with the higher concentrations (0.50 and 0.75 wt%). Significance The outcomes of this study suggested that the incorporation of TiO2 NPs (0.10 wt%) into 3D-printed denture base material showed superior performance compared to the unmodified 3D-printed resin even after ageing in artificial saliva. The nanocomposite has the potential to extend service life of denture bases in future clinical use.

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