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    Utilising bio-based plasticiser castor oil and recycled PLA for the production of conductive additive manufacturing feedstock and detection of bisphenol A

    Crapnell, Robert D ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8701-3933, Arantes, IVS, Whittingham, MJ, Sigley, E, Kalinke, C, Janegitz, BC, Bonacin, JA, Paixão, TRLC and Banks, Craig E ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0756-9764 (2023) Utilising bio-based plasticiser castor oil and recycled PLA for the production of conductive additive manufacturing feedstock and detection of bisphenol A. Green Chemistry, 25 (14). pp. 5591-5600. ISSN 1463-9262

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    Abstract

    The production of electrically conductive additive manufacturing feedstocks from recycled poly(lactic acid) (rPLA), carbon black (CB), and bio-based plasticiser castor oil is reported herein. The filament was used to print additively manufactured electrodes (AMEs), which were electrochemically benchmarked against geometrically identical AMEs printed from a commercially available conductive filament. The castor oil/rPLA AMEs produced an enhanced heterogeneous electrochemical rate constant of (1.71 ± 0.22) × 10−3 cm s−1 compared to (0.30 ± 0.03) × 10−3 cm s−1 for the commercial AME, highlighting the improved performance of this filament for the production of working electrodes. A bespoke electroanalytical cell was designed and utilised to detect bisphenol A (BPA). The AMEs made from the castor oil/rPLA gave an enhanced electroanalytical performance compared to the commercial filament, producing a sensitivity of 0.59 μA μM−1, a LOD of 0.10 μM and LOQ of 0.34 μM. This system was then successfully applied to detect BPA in spiked bottled and tap water samples, producing recoveries between 89-104%. This work shows how the production of conductive filaments may be done more sustainably while improving performance.

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