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    Mixed Graphite/Carbon Black Recycled PLA Conductive Additive Manufacturing Filament for the Electrochemical Detection of Oxalate

    Arantes, Iana VS, Crapnell, Robert D ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8701-3933, Bernalte, Elena, Whittingham, Matthew ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2700-9008, Paixão, Thiago RLC and Banks, Craig E ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0756-9764 (2023) Mixed Graphite/Carbon Black Recycled PLA Conductive Additive Manufacturing Filament for the Electrochemical Detection of Oxalate. Analytical Chemistry. ISSN 0003-2700

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    Abstract

    Mixing of graphite and carbon black (CB) alongside recycled poly(lactic acid) and castor oil to create an electrically conductive additive manufacturing filament without the use of solvents is reported herein. The additively manufactured electrodes (AMEs) were electrochemically benchmarked against a commercial conductive filament and a bespoke filament utilizing only CB. The graphite/CB produced a heterogeneous rate constant, <i>k</i><sup>0</sup>, of 1.26 (±0.23) × 10<sup>-3</sup> cm s<sup>-1</sup> and resistance of only 155 ± 15 Ω, compared to 0.30 (±0.03) × 10<sup>-3</sup> cm s<sup>-1</sup> and 768 ± 96 Ω for the commercial AME. Including graphite within the filament reduced the cost of printing each AME from £0.09, with the CB-only filament, to £0.05. The additive manufacturing filament was successfully used to create an electroanalytical sensing platform for the detection of oxalate within a linear range of 10-500 μM, achieving a sensitivity of 0.0196 μA/μM, LOD of 5.7 μM and LOQ of 18.8 μM was obtained. Additionally, the cell was tested toward the detection of oxalate within a spiked synthetic urine sample, obtaining recoveries of 104%. This work highlights how, using mixed material composites, excellent electrochemical performance can be obtained at a reduced material cost, while also greatly improving the sustainability of the system.

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