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    Dipstick sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer-coated screen-printed electrodes for the single-shot detection of glucose in urine samples—from fundamental study toward point-of-care application

    Caldara, Manlio, Lowdon, Joseph W, van Wissen, Gil, Ferrari, Alejandro Garcia-Miranda, Crapnell, Robert D ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8701-3933, Cleij, Thomas J, Diliën, Hanne, Banks, Craig E ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0756-9764, Eersels, Kasper and van Grinsven, Bart (2023) Dipstick sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer-coated screen-printed electrodes for the single-shot detection of glucose in urine samples—from fundamental study toward point-of-care application. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 10 (18). p. 2300182. ISSN 2196-7350

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    Abstract

    Glucose biosensors play an extremely important role in health care systems worldwide. Therefore, the field continues to attract significant attention leading to the development of innovative technologies. Due to their characteristics, Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) represent a promising alternative to commercial enzymatic sensors. In this work, a low-cost, flexible MIP-based platform for glucose sensing by integrating MIP particles directly into screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is realized. The sensor design allows the detection of glucose via two different transducer principles, the so-called “heat-transfer method” (HTM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor are demonstrated by comparing the responses obtained toward three different saccharides. Furthermore, the application potential of the MIP-SPE sensor is demonstrated by analyzing the response in urine samples, showing a linear range of 14.38–330 µm with HTM and 1.37–330 µm with EIS. To bring the sensor closer to a real life application, a handheld dipstick sensor is developed, allowing the single-shot detection of glucose in urine using EIS. This study illustrates that the simplicity of the dipstick readout coupled with the straightforward manufacturing process opens up the possibility for mass production, making this platform a very attractive alternative to commercial glucose sensors.

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