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    A real time method for distinguishing COVID-19 utilizing 2D-CNN and transfer learning

    Sultana, Abida, Nahiduzzaman, Md, Bakchy, Sagor Chandro, Shahriar, Saleh Mohammed, Peyal, Hasibul Islam, Chowdhury, Muhammad EH, Khandakar, Amith, Arselene Ayari, Mohamed, Ahsan, Mominul and Haider, Julfikar ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7010-8285 (2023) A real time method for distinguishing COVID-19 utilizing 2D-CNN and transfer learning. Sensors, 23 (9). p. 4458. ISSN 1424-8220

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    Rapid identification of COVID-19 can assist in making decisions for effective treatment and epidemic prevention. The PCR-based test is expert-dependent, is time-consuming, and has limited sensitivity. By inspecting Chest R-ray (CXR) images, COVID-19, pneumonia, and other lung infections can be detected in real time. The current, state-of-the-art literature suggests that deep learning (DL) is highly advantageous in automatic disease classification utilizing the CXR images. The goal of this study is to develop models by employing DL models for identifying COVID-19 and other lung disorders more efficiently. For this study, a dataset of 18,564 CXR images with seven disease categories was created from multiple publicly available sources. Four DL architectures including the proposed CNN model and pretrained VGG-16, VGG-19, and Inception-v3 models were applied to identify healthy and six lung diseases (fibrosis, lung opacity, viral pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, COVID-19, and tuberculosis). Accuracy, precision, recall, f1 score, area under the curve (AUC), and testing time were used to evaluate the performance of these four models. The results demonstrated that the proposed CNN model outperformed all other DL models employed for a seven-class classification with an accuracy of 93.15% and average values for precision, recall, f1-score, and AUC of 0.9343, 0.9443, 0.9386, and 0.9939. The CNN model equally performed well when other multiclass classifications including normal and COVID-19 as the common classes were considered, yielding accuracy values of 98%, 97.49%, 97.81%, 96%, and 96.75% for two, three, four, five, and six classes, respectively. The proposed model can also identify COVID-19 with shorter training and testing times compared to other transfer learning models.

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