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    Hybrid mmWave-Li-Fi 5G Architecture for Reconfigurable Variable Latency and Data Rate Communications

    Lau, Iain, Ekpo, Sunday ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9219-3759, Zafar, Muazzam, Ijaz, Muhammad ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0050-9435 and Gibson, Andrew (2023) Hybrid mmWave-Li-Fi 5G Architecture for Reconfigurable Variable Latency and Data Rate Communications. IEEE Access, 11. pp. 42850-42861. ISSN 2169-3536

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    Despite modern vehicles having the necessary advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for autonomous operation, current implementations rely solely on sensor information from the surrounding environment or data from smart infrastructure. However, shortcomings in current implementations and standards around cost-effective variable latency and data rate have prevented widespread adoption of the technology to enable autonomous operation. This paper presents a proof-of-concept (PoC) reconfigurable design and performance of a hybrid high-ultra-high bands [i.e., millimetre-Wave (mmWave)-light fidelity (Li-Fi)] fifth generation (5G) architecture for autonomous vehicular communication applications. The hybrid multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system architecture design is mathematically modelled and presented. The reported prelim PoC validation focuses on the Li-Fi experiment and results. The proposed hybrid system’s effectiveness was evaluated using the open-source “Model-based Autonomous Traffic Simulation” (MOBATSim). The simulation results of a potential Li-Fi system and a PoC prototype are presented to demonstrate the role of the Li-Fi system in the proposed hybrid mmWave-Li-Fi 5G architecture. Three models of LED/lamp and two models of photodiode were simulated at three different vehicle speeds to ascertain the potential of the system. Promising results are reported at low speeds with received power values of up to -8.39 dBm and signal to noise ratios of up to 29.39 dB. Practical prototype simulations showed auspicious results including received power of -24.6 dBm to -34.12 dBm at the vehicle speeds of 10 MPH to 30 MPH respectively. The implemented PoC Li-Fi technology component has demonstrated the ability to transmit information with a theoretical output of 333 bits per second at 1.92 m, without the use of any highpower processors, components, and modulation techniques. The proposed system yields high data rates due to reconfigurable high bandwidth channels; many simultaneous multimedia mmWave-Li-Fi connections enabled due to spatial reuse with narrow beams; and easier mmWave-Li-Fi ultra-low latency support occasioned by smaller packet sizes. This holds a great promise for the hybrid 5G/6G mmWave-Li-Fi autonomous vehicular communication use case and/or applications.

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