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    Histological evaluation of the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 9 and angiopoietin 1 on bone healing

    Fadhil, Enas, Dosh, Rasha H, Wally, Zena J and Haider, Julfikar ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7010-8285 (2023) Histological evaluation of the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 9 and angiopoietin 1 on bone healing. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 18 (5). pp. 954-963. ISSN 1658-3612

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    Objectives: Bone healing remains a critical clinical orthopedic problem. Bone, which is a greatly vascularized tissue, depends on the tight temporal and spatial link between blood vessels and bone cells. Thus, angiogenesis is crucial for skeletal growth and bone fracture healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the local application of osteogenic and angiogenic factors such as bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), respectively, and their combination as an osteoinducer in the process of bone healing. Methods: Forty-eight male albino rats, weighing 300 e400 g and aged 6e8 months, were utilized in this study. The animals underwent surgery on the medial side of the tibia bone. In the control group, an absorbable hemostatic sponge was locally applied to the bone defect, while experimental groups were separated into three groups. In Group I, 1 mg BMP9 was locally applied, Group II was treated with 1 mg Ang1, and Group III was treated with local application of a combination (0.5 mg BMP9 and 0.5 mg Ang1). All experimental groups were fixed with an absorbable hemostatic sponge. The rats were sacrificed on days 14 and 28 after surgery. Results: Local application of BMP9 alone, Ang1 alone, and their combination to a tibia defect caused osteoid tissue formation and significantly increased the number of bone cells. A gradual decrease in the number of Q3 trabecular bone, an increase in trabecular area, and no significant difference in the bone marrow area were noted. Conclusion: The combination of BMP9 and Ang1 has therapeutic potential in promoting the healing process of bone defects. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis are regulated by BMP9 and Ang1. These factors act together to accelerate bone regeneration more efficiently than either factor alone.

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