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    Adjusting the connection length of additively manufactured electrodes changes the electrochemical and electroanalytical performance

    Crapnell, RD ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8701-3933, Garcia-Miranda Ferrari, A ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1797-1519, Whittingham, MJ, Sigley, E, Hurst, NJ, Keefe, EM and Banks, CE ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0756-9764 (2022) Adjusting the connection length of additively manufactured electrodes changes the electrochemical and electroanalytical performance. Sensors, 22 (23). p. 9521. ISSN 1424-8220

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    Changing the connection length of an additively manufactured electrode (AME) has a significant impact on the electrochemical and electroanalytical response of the system. In the literature, many electrochemical platforms have been produced using additive manufacturing with great variations in how the AME itself is described. It is seen that when measuring the near-ideal outer-sphere redox probe hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride (RuHex), decreasing the AME connection length enhances the heterogeneous electrochemical transfer (HET) rate constant ((Formula presented.)) for the system. At slow scan rates, there is a clear change in the peak-to-peak separation (ΔEp) observed in the RuHex voltammograms, with the ΔEp shifting from 118 ± 5 mV to 291 ± 27 mV for the 10 and 100 mm electrodes, respectively. For the electroanalytical determination of dopamine, no significant difference is noticed at low concentrations between 10- and 100-mm connection length AMEs. However, at concentrations of 1 mM dopamine, the peak oxidation is shifted to significantly higher potentials as the AME connection length is increased, with a shift of 150 mV measured. It is recommended that in future work, all AME dimensions, not just the working electrode head size, is reported along with the resistance measured through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to allow for appropriate comparisons with other reports in the literature. To produce the best additively manufactured electrochemical systems in the future, researchers should endeavor to use the shortest AME connection lengths that are viable for their designs.

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