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    Citizenship education in the United Kingdom: comparing England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales

    Alan, Britton, Lesley, Emerson, Sue, James, Lee, Jerome, Matthew, Milliken and Sant Obiols, Edda ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7907-5907 (2022) Citizenship education in the United Kingdom: comparing England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Journal of Social Science Education, 21 (4). pp. 1-22. ISSN 1611-9665

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    Abstract

    Purpose: In this country case study the authors undertake a comparative analysis of citizenship education across the four nations of the UK. The curriculum and contexts in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are first described. Then the article considers how each national example engages with fundamental expectations of citizenship education, specifically in relation to questions of citizenship status and the relationship between citizens and the state; political identity; and active citizenship processes. Approach: Drawing on the authors’ collective experience and insights into policy and practice in each nation, we started with a ‘generative conversation’ to identify key issues for inclusion in this case study. Findings: The article unearths a variety of constraints and problems, and situates these in a broader policyscape in which policy accretion and policy approximation generate a permissive culture, which has undermined the promise of citizenship education as an entitlement for all young people.

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