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    A novel approach for modelling and classifying sit-to-stand kinematics using inertial sensors

    Wairagkar, Maitreyee, Villeneuve, Emma, King, Rachel, Janko, Balazs, Burnett, Malcolm, Agarwal, Veena, Kunkel, Dorit, Ashburn, Ann, Sherratt, R Simon, Holderbaum, William ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1677-9624 and Harwin, William S (2022) A novel approach for modelling and classifying sit-to-stand kinematics using inertial sensors. PLoS One, 17 (10). e0264126. ISSN 1932-6203

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    Sit-to-stand transitions are an important part of activities of daily living and play a key role in functional mobility in humans. The sit-to-stand movement is often affected in older adults due to frailty and in patients with motor impairments such as Parkinson's disease leading to falls. Studying kinematics of sit-to-stand transitions can provide insight in assessment, monitoring and developing rehabilitation strategies for the affected populations. We propose a three-segment body model for estimating sit-to-stand kinematics using only two wearable inertial sensors, placed on the shank and back. Reducing the number of sensors to two instead of one per body segment facilitates monitoring and classifying movements over extended periods, making it more comfortable to wear while reducing the power requirements of sensors. We applied this model on 10 younger healthy adults (YH), 12 older healthy adults (OH) and 12 people with Parkinson's disease (PwP). We have achieved this by incorporating unique sit-to-stand classification technique using unsupervised learning in the model based reconstruction of angular kinematics using extended Kalman filter. Our proposed model showed that it was possible to successfully estimate thigh kinematics despite not measuring the thigh motion with inertial sensor. We classified sit-to-stand transitions, sitting and standing states with the accuracies of 98.67%, 94.20% and 91.41% for YH, OH and PwP respectively. We have proposed a novel integrated approach of modelling and classification for estimating the body kinematics during sit-to-stand motion and successfully applied it on YH, OH and PwP groups.

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