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    Effect of the perception of breakfast consumption on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy males

    Slater, Tommy, Mode, William JA, Hough, John, James, Ruth M, Sale, Craig ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5816-4169, James, Lewis J and Clayton, David J (2022) Effect of the perception of breakfast consumption on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy males. European Journal of Nutrition, 61 (3). pp. 1319-1330. ISSN 0044-264X

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    Purpose: This study aimed to assess the effects of consuming a very-low-energy placebo breakfast on subsequent appetite and lunch energy intake. Methods: Fourteen healthy males consumed water-only (WAT), very-low-energy, viscous placebo (containing water, low-calorie flavoured squash, and xanthan gum; ~ 16 kcal; PLA), and whole-food (~ 573 kcal; FOOD) breakfasts in a randomised order. Subjects were blinded to the energy content of PLA and specific study aims. Venous blood samples were collected pre-breakfast, 60- and 180-min post-breakfast to assess plasma acylated ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine concentrations. Subjective appetite was measured regularly, and energy intake was assessed at an ad libitum lunch meal 195-min post-breakfast. Results: Lunch energy intake was lower during FOOD compared to WAT (P < 0.05), with no further differences between trials (P ≥ 0.132). Cumulative energy intake (breakfast plus lunch) was lower during PLA (1078 ± 274 kcal) and WAT (1093 ± 249 kcal), compared to FOOD (1554 ± 301 kcal; P < 0.001). Total area under the curve (AUC) for hunger, desire to eat and prospective food consumption were lower, and fullness was greater during PLA and FOOD compared to WAT (P < 0.05). AUC for hunger was lower during FOOD compared to PLA (P < 0.05). During FOOD, acylated ghrelin was suppressed compared to PLA and WAT at 60 min (P < 0.05), with no other hormonal differences between trials (P ≥ 0.071). Conclusion: Consuming a very-low-energy placebo breakfast does not alter energy intake at lunch but may reduce cumulative energy intake across breakfast and lunch and attenuate elevations in subjective appetite associated with breakfast omission. Trial registration: NCT04735783, 2nd February 2021, retrospectively registered.

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