Manchester Metropolitan University's Research Repository

    Parrot ownership and capture in coastal ecuador: Developing a trapping pressure index

    Biddle, R, Solis-Ponce, I, Jones, M ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2510-8697, Pilgrim, M and Marsden, S ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0205-960X (2021) Parrot ownership and capture in coastal ecuador: Developing a trapping pressure index. Diversity, 13 (1). pp. 1-13. ISSN 1424-2818

    Published Version
    Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

    Download (1MB) | Preview


    We located rural communities with pet parrots and used these locations to predict the probability of illegal parrot ownership across coastal Ecuador, using variables related to demand for pets, parrot availability, and trapping accessibility. In 12 pet keeping communities, we carried out in-depth interviews with 106 people, to quantify ownership, trapping, and interviewees’ attitudes towards these behaviours. We combined these data to calculate a trapping pressure index for four key roosting, feeding and nesting sites for the Critically Endangered Lilacine or Ecuadorian Amazon Parrot Amazona lilacina. We found that 66% of all communities had pet parrots and 31% had pet Lilacines. Our predictive models showed that pet parrot ownership occurs throughout coastal Ecuador, but ownership of Lilacines by rural communities, is more likely to occur within the natural distribution of the species. The number of people per community who had owned Lilacines in the last three years varied from 0–50%, as did the number of people who had trapped them—from 0–26%. We interviewed 10 people who had captured the species in the last three years who reported motives of either to sell or keep birds as pets. Attitudes towards pet keeping and trapping differed among the 12 communities: 20–52% believed it was acceptable to keep pet parrots, and for 32–74%, it was acceptable to catch parrots to sell. This being said, most people believed that wild parrots were important for nature and that local people had a responsibility to protect them. We conclude that trapping pressure is greatest in the southern part of the Lilacine’s range, and urgent conservation measures such as nest and roost protection, and local community engagement are needed.

    Impact and Reach


    Activity Overview
    6 month trend
    6 month trend

    Additional statistics for this dataset are available via IRStats2.


    Actions (login required)

    View Item View Item