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    On the edge: habitat restoration priorities for three critically endangered bird species on Sangihe, Indonesia

    Martin, Robert W, Collar, Nigel J, Fauzen, Panji, Bashari, Hanom, Widyanto, Adi, Tasirin, John S and Marsden, Stuart J (2023) On the edge: habitat restoration priorities for three critically endangered bird species on Sangihe, Indonesia. Restoration Ecology, 31 (1). e13770-e13770. ISSN 1061-2971

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    Remnant forests on the small Wallacean island of Sangihe north of Sulawesi hold the entire ranges of more critically endangered (CR) bird species than any other comparable area on earth. We develop habitat association models for three of these CR species to identify critical habitat features as well as areas where habitat falls slightly short of suitability, and to determine whether another area of forest away from the largest block might be suitable as an insurance site for a translocated population. Hopes for all three species appear almost totally pinned to forest within a 13 km2 area of the Sahendaruman crater, with virtually no near-suitable habitat away from this site. There is, however, little overlap in habitats between one CR species and the other two: cerulean flycatcher Eutrichomyias rowleyi is associated with mature streamside forest with full canopy cover, lianas, and mid-level growth, while Sangihe whistler Coracornis sanghirensis and Sangihe golden bulbul Hypsipetes platenae are restricted to ridgetop forest with full canopy cover and large trees. We pinpoint small areas (around 5 km2) of forest in the crater that are already suitable or can be made so with habitat management, and these are absolute priorities for conservation action. We show how habitat characteristics identified within models might be enhanced, and how features, especially certain tree species, can be used as indicators of future habitat improvement.

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