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    Additively manufactured rotating disk electrodes and experimental setup

    Whittingham, Matthew J, Crapnell, Robert D ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8701-3933 and Banks, Craig E ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0756-9764 (2022) Additively manufactured rotating disk electrodes and experimental setup. Analytical Chemistry. ISSN 0003-2700

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    Abstract

    This manuscript details the first report of a complete additively manufactured rotating disk electrode setup, highlighting how high-performing equipment can be designed and produced rapidly using additive manufacturing without compromising on performance. The additively manufactured rotating disk electrode system was printed using a predominantly acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) based filament and used widely available, low-cost electronics, and simplified machined parts to create. The additively manufactured rotating disk electrode system costs less than 2% of a comparable commercial solution (£84.47 ($102.26) total). The rotating disk electrode is also additively manufactured using a carbon black/polylactic acid (CB/PLA) equivalent, developing a completely additively manufactured rotating disk electrode system. The electrochemical characterization of the additively manufactured rotating disk electrode setup was performed using hexaamineruthenium(III) chloride and compared favorably with a commercial glassy carbon electrode. Finally, this work shows how the additively manufactured rotating disk electrode experimental system and additive manufactured electrodes can be utilized for the electroanalytical determination of levodopa, a drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, producing a limit of detection of 0.23 ± 0.03 μM. This work represents a step-change in how additive manufacturing can be used in research, allowing the production of high-end equipment for hugely reduced costs, without compromising on performance. Utilizing additive manufacturing in this way could greatly enhance the research possibilities for less well-funded research groups.

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