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    Examining what Mental Toughness, Ego Resiliency, Self-efficacy, and Grit measure: An exploratory structural equation modelling bifactor approach

    Denovan, A, Dagnall, N ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0657-7604 and Drinkwater, K ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4015-0578 (2022) Examining what Mental Toughness, Ego Resiliency, Self-efficacy, and Grit measure: An exploratory structural equation modelling bifactor approach. Current Psychology. ISSN 1046-1310

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    Abstract

    Despite conceptual similarities among the established non-cognitive constructs of Mental Toughness, Ego Resiliency, Self-efficacy, and Grit, preceding research typically considered these as adversary rather than complementary and potentially additive. Subsequently, comparatively few studies have examined these together. This paper, via two independent studies, examined commonality within Mental Toughness, Ego Resiliency, Self-efficacy, and Grit. This identified key elements that contribute to a broad, non-cognitive, resource-based construct. Study 1 (N = 2137) assessed shared variance among the non-cognitive constructs relative to a general factor. Study 2 (N = 1148) evaluated the replicability of the results from Study 1 and examined measurement invariance. Respondents completed established self-report measures indexing the study variables. Exploratory structural equation modelling bifactor analyses consistently revealed that Mental Toughness, the Ego-Resiliency Optimal Regulation subscale, and Self-efficacy loaded highly on a general factor, which the authors labelled as Non-Cognitive Adaptive Resourcefulness (NCAR). Invariance analyses supported the stability of this model across study context. This paper advanced conceptual understanding of the core shared features of independent non-cognitive constructs. The authors discuss the potential of NCAR and advocate the need for further research.

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