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    Co-limitation towards lower latitudes shapes global forest diversity gradients

    Liang, Jingjing, Gamarra, Javier GP, Picard, Nicolas, Zhou, Mo, Pijanowski, Bryan, Jacobs, Douglass F, Reich, Peter B, Crowther, Thomas W, Nabuurs, Gert-Jan, de-Miguel, Sergio, Fang, Jingyun, Woodall, Christopher W, Svenning, Jens-Christian, Jucker, Tommaso, Bastin, Jean-Francois, Wiser, Susan K, Slik, Ferry, Hérault, Bruno, Alberti, Giorgio, Keppel, Gunnar, Hengeveld, Geerten M, Ibisch, Pierre L, Silva, Carlos A, ter Steege, Hans, Peri, Pablo L, Coomes, David A, Searle, Eric B, von Gadow, Klaus, Jaroszewicz, Bogdan, Abbasi, Akane O, Abegg, Meinrad, Yao, Yves C Adou, Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús, Zambrano, Angelica M Almeyda, Altman, Jan, Alvarez-Dávila, Esteban, Álvarez-González, Juan Gabriel, Alves, Luciana F, Amani, Bienvenu HK, Amani, Christian A, Ammer, Christian, Ilondea, Bhely Angoboy, Antón-Fernández, Clara, Avitabile, Valerio, Aymard, Gerardo A, Azihou, Akomian F, Baard, Johan A, Baker, Timothy R, Balazy, Radomir, Bastian, Meredith L, Batumike, Rodrigue, Bauters, Marijn, Beeckman, Hans, Benu, Nithanel Mikael Hendrik, Bitariho, Robert, Boeckx, Pascal, Bogaert, Jan, Bongers, Frans, Bouriaud, Olivier, Brancalion, Pedro HS, Brandl, Susanne, Brearley, Francis Q, Briseno-Reyes, Jaime, Broadbent, Eben N, Bruelheide, Helge, Bulte, Erwin, Catlin, Ann Christine, Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto, César, Ricardo G, Chen, Han YH, Chisholm, Chelsea, Cienciala, Emil, Colletta, Gabriel D, Corral-Rivas, José Javier, Cuchietti, Anibal, Cuni-Sanchez, Aida, Dar, Javid A, Dayanandan, Selvadurai, de Haulleville, Thales, Decuyper, Mathieu, Delabye, Sylvain, Derroire, Géraldine, DeVries, Ben, Diisi, John, Do, Tran Van, Dolezal, Jiri, Dourdain, Aurélie, Durrheim, Graham P, Obiang, Nestor Laurier Engone, Ewango, Corneille EN, Eyre, Teresa J, Fayle, Tom M, Feunang, Lethicia Flavine N, Finér, Leena, Fischer, Markus, Fridman, Jonas, Frizzera, Lorenzo, de Gasper, André L, Gianelle, Damiano, Glick, Henry B, Gonzalez-Elizondo, Maria Socorro, Gorenstein, Lev, Habonayo, Richard, Hardy, Olivier J, Harris, David J, Hector, Andrew, Hemp, Andreas, Herold, Martin, Hillers, Annika, Hubau, Wannes, Ibanez, Thomas, Imai, Nobuo, Imani, Gerard, Jagodzinski, Andrzej M, Janecek, Stepan, Johannsen, Vivian Kvist, Joly, Carlos A, Jumbam, Blaise, Kabelong, Banoho LPR, Kahsay, Goytom Abraha, Karminov, Viktor, Kartawinata, Kuswata, Kassi, Justin N, Kearsley, Elizabeth, Kennard, Deborah K, Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian, Khan, Mohammed Latif, Kigomo, John N, Kim, Hyun Seok, Klauberg, Carine, Klomberg, Yannick, Korjus, Henn, Kothandaraman, Subashree, Kraxner, Florian, Kumar, Amit, Kuswandi, Relawan, Lang, Mait, Lawes, Michael J, Leite, Rodrigo V, Lentner, Geoffrey, Lewis, Simon L, Libalah, Moses B, Lisingo, Janvier, López-Serrano, Pablito Marcelo, Lu, Huicui, Lukina, Natalia V, Lykke, Anne Mette, Maicher, Vincent, Maitner, Brian S, Marcon, Eric, Marshall, Andrew R, Martin, Emanuel H, Martynenko, Olga, Mbayu, Faustin M, Mbuvi, Musingo TE, Meave, Jorge A, Merow, Cory, Miscicki, Stanislaw, Moreno, Vanessa S, Morera, Albert, Mukul, Sharif A, Müller, Jörg C, Murdjoko, Agustinus, Nava-Miranda, Maria Guadalupe, Ndive, Litonga Elias, Neldner, Victor J, Nevenic, Radovan V, Nforbelie, Louis N, Ngoh, Michael L, N’Guessan, Anny E, Ngugi, Michael R, Ngute, Alain SK, Njila, Emile Narcisse N, Nyako, Melanie C, Ochuodho, Thomas O, Oleksyn, Jacek, Paquette, Alain, Parfenova, Elena I, Park, Minjee, Parren, Marc, Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy, Pfautsch, Sebastian, Phillips, Oliver L, Piedade, Maria TF, Piotto, Daniel, Pollastrini, Martina, Poorter, Lourens, Poulsen, John R, Poulsen, Axel Dalberg, Pretzsch, Hans, Rodeghiero, Mirco, Rolim, Samir G, Rovero, Francesco, Rutishauser, Ervan, Sagheb-Talebi, Khosro, Saikia, Purabi, Sainge, Moses Nsanyi, Salas-Eljatib, Christian, Salis, Antonello, Schall, Peter, Schepaschenko, Dmitry, Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael, Schmid, Bernhard, Schöngart, Jochen, Šebeň, Vladimír, Sellan, Giacomo, Selvi, Federico, Serra-Diaz, Josep M, Sheil, Douglas, Shvidenko, Anatoly Z, Sist, Plinio, Souza, Alexandre F, Stereńczak, Krzysztof J, Sullivan, Martin JP, Sundarapandian, Somaiah, Svoboda, Miroslav, Swaine, Mike D, Targhetta, Natalia, Tchebakova, Nadja, Trethowan, Liam A, Tropek, Robert, Mukendi, John Tshibamba, Umunay, Peter Mbanda, Usoltsev, Vladimir A, Vaglio Laurin, Gaia, Valentini, Riccardo, Valladares, Fernando, van der Plas, Fons, Vega-Nieva, Daniel José, Verbeeck, Hans, Viana, Helder, Vibrans, Alexander C, Vieira, Simone A, Vleminckx, Jason, Waite, Catherine E, Wang, Hua-Feng, Wasingya, Eric Katembo, Wekesa, Chemuku, Westerlund, Bertil, Wittmann, Florian, Wortel, Verginia, Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Tomasz, Zhang, Chunyu, Zhao, Xiuhai, Zhu, Jun, Zhu, Xiao, Zhu, Zhi-Xin, Zo-Bi, Irie C and Hui, Cang (2022) Co-limitation towards lower latitudes shapes global forest diversity gradients. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 6 (10). pp. 1423-1437. ISSN 2397-334X

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    Abstract

    The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is one of the most recognized global patterns of species richness exhibited across a wide range of taxa. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed in the past two centuries to explain LDG, but rigorous tests of the drivers of LDGs have been limited by a lack of high-quality global species richness data. Here we produce a high-resolution (0.025° × 0.025°) map of local tree species richness using a global forest inventory database with individual tree information and local biophysical characteristics from ~1.3 million sample plots. We then quantify drivers of local tree species richness patterns across latitudes. Generally, annual mean temperature was a dominant predictor of tree species richness, which is most consistent with the metabolic theory of biodiversity (MTB). However, MTB underestimated LDG in the tropics, where high species richness was also moderated by topographic, soil and anthropogenic factors operating at local scales. Given that local landscape variables operate synergistically with bioclimatic factors in shaping the global LDG pattern, we suggest that MTB be extended to account for co-limitation by subordinate drivers.

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