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    Lower limb bone geometry in adult individuals with X-linked hypophosphatemia: an observational study

    Scorcelletti, Matteo, Kara, Serhan, Zange, Jochen, Jordan, Jens, Semler, Oliver, Schönau, Eckhard, Rittweger, Jörn, Ireland, Alex ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1094-9183 and Seefried, Lothar (2022) Lower limb bone geometry in adult individuals with X-linked hypophosphatemia: an observational study. Osteoporosis International, 33 (7). pp. 1601-1611. ISSN 0937-941X

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    Summary: We assessed lower-limb geometry in adults with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and controls. We found large differences in multiple measures including femoral and tibial torsion, bowing and cross-sectional area and acetabular version and coverage which may contribute to clinical problems such as osteoarthritis, fractures and altered gait common in XLH. Purpose: Individuals with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) are at risk of lower-limb deformities and early onset of osteoarthritis. These two factors may be linked, as altered biomechanics is a risk factor for osteoarthritis. This exploratory evaluation aims at providing clues and concepts for this association to facilitate future larger-scale and longitudinal studies on that aspect. Methods: For this observational study, 13 patients with XLH, aged 18–65 years (6 female), were compared with sex-, age- and weight-matched healthy individuals at a single German research centre. Femoral and hip joint geometry, including femoral and tibial torsion and femoral and tibial shaft bowing, bone cross-sectional area (CSA) and acetabular version and coverage were measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Results: Total femoral torsion was 29° lower in individuals with XLH than in controls (p < 0.001), mainly resulting from lower intertrochanteric torsion (ITT) (p < 0.001). Femoral lateral and frontal bowing, tibial frontal bowing, mechanical axis, femoral mechanical–anatomical angle, acetabular version and acetabular coverage were all greater and tibial torsion lower in individuals with XLH as compared to controls (all p < 0.05). Greater femoral total and marrow cavity CSA, greater tibial marrow cavity CSA and lower cortical CSA were observed in XLH (all p < 0.05). Discussion: We observed large differences in clinically relevant measures of tibia and particularly femur bone geometry in individuals with XLH compared to controls. These differences may plausibly contribute to clinical manifestations of XLH such as early-onset osteoarthritis, pseudofractures and altered gait and therefore should be considered when planning corrective surgeries.

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