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Carbon Dioxide Laser as a Sustainable Method for Producing a Pattern on Denim Fabric: Evaluation of Colour and Durability

Venkatraman, Prabhuraj D (2022) Carbon Dioxide Laser as a Sustainable Method for Producing a Pattern on Denim Fabric: Evaluation of Colour and Durability. Advance Research in Textile Engineering, 7 (1).

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Laser treatment of denim fabrics was demonstrated as one of the methods of producing distressed effects and is continuing to attract textile and fashion designers to develop bespoke designs that appeal to all age groups. Two dark shaded indigo-dyed 100% cotton twill fabric with varying weights representing various garment applications were laser treated using a commercially available pulsed CO2 laser of wavelength 10.62�m. Pulses per inch, which is the degree of closeness of laser irradiation, was maintained at 300 and 400 PPI. Treated denim fabrics were evaluated for tensile strength, colour measurements, including colour hue (H), saturation (S), brightness (B), reflectance, K/S (colour yield), CIE L* a* b*, fabric thickness and colourfastness after wash. Results indicated that colour contrast of denim fabric enhanced with the increase in grayscale (tone density) for both the LW (lightweight) and HW (heavyweight) fabrics, mainly at lower laser speed (80%) and higher laser power (40%). At higher grayscale (30% GS), surface fibers charred due to laser and the oxidation of cellulose occurred, causing a distinct yellow tone compared to pristine denim. Fabric tensile strength was affected as grayscale and laser parameters increased, the variation from pristine denim for LW fabric was 40 - 45% at 30% GS, whilst for HW fabric, variation was 25-30%. Colourfastness tests revealed limited colour staining, and it removed charred fibers showing a distinct tone change. This research recommends a combination of fabric and laser parameters to produce patterns without affecting the overall quality of the fabric.

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