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Diamine Oxidase-Conjugated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes to Facilitate Electrode Surface Homogeneity

Amin, M, Abdullah, BM, Rowley-Neale, SJ, Wylie, S, Slate, AJ, Banks, CE and Whitehead, KA (2022) Diamine Oxidase-Conjugated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes to Facilitate Electrode Surface Homogeneity. Sensors, 22 (2). ISSN 1424-8220

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Abstract

Carbon nanomaterials have gained significant interest over recent years in the field of electrochemistry, and they may be limited in their use due to issues with their difficulty in dispersion. Enzymes are prime components for detecting biological molecules and enabling electrochemical interactions, but they may also enhance multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersion. This study evaluated a MWCNT and diamine oxidase enzyme (DAO)-functionalised screen-printed electrode (SPE) to demonstrate improved methods of MWCNT functionalisation and dispersion. MWCNT morphology and dispersion was determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Carboxyl groups were introduced onto the MWCNT surfaces using acid etching. MWCNT functionalisation was carried out using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), followed by DAO conjugation and glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking. Modified C-MWNCT/EDC-NHS/DAO/GA was drop cast onto SPEs. Modified and unmodified electrodes after MWCNT functionalisation were characterised using optical profilometry (roughness), water contact angle measurements (wettability), Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) (vibrational modes and elemental composition, respectively). The results demonstrated that the addition of the DAO improved MWCNT homogenous dispersion and the solution demonstrated enhanced stability which remained over two days. Drop casting of C-MWCNT/EDC-NHS/DAO/GA onto carbon screen-printed electrodes increased the surface roughness and wettability. UV-Vis, SEM, Raman and EDX analysis determined the presence of carboxylated MWCNT variants from their non-carboxylated counterparts. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated an efficient electron transfer rate process and a diffusion-controlled redox process. The modification of such electrodes may be utilised for the development of biosensors which could be utilised to support a range of healthcare related fields.

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