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Antibody protection against long-term memory loss induced by monomeric c-reactive protein in a mouse model of dementia

García-Lara, E, Aguirre, S, Clotet, N, Sawkulycz, X, Bartra, C, Almenara-Fuentes, L, Suñol, C, Corpas, R, Olah, P, Tripon, F, Crauciuc, A, Slevin, M ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3767-4861 and Sanfeliu, C (2021) Antibody protection against long-term memory loss induced by monomeric c-reactive protein in a mouse model of dementia. Biomedicines, 9 (7). ISSN 2227-9059

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Abstract

Monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP), the activated isoform of CRP, induces tissue damage in a range of inflammatory pathologies. Its detection in infarcted human brain tissue and its experimentally proven ability to promote dementia with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) traits at 4 weeks after intrahippocampal injection in mice have suggested that it may contribute to the development of AD after cerebrovascular injury. Here, we showed that a single hippocampal administration of mCRP in mice induced memory loss, lasting at least 6 months, along with neurodegenerative changes detected by increased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau protein and a decrease of the neuroplasticity marker Egr1. Furthermore, co-treatment with the monoclonal antibody 8C10 specific for mCRP showed that long-term memory loss and tau pathology were entirely avoided by early blockade of mCRP. Notably, 8C10 mitigated Egr1 decrease in the mouse hippocampus. 8C10 also protected against mCRP-induced inflammatory pathways in a microglial cell line, as shown by the prevention of increased generation of nitric oxide. Additional in vivo and in vitro neuroprotective testing with the anti-inflammatory agent TPPU, an inhibitor of the soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme, confirmed the predominant involvement of neuroinflammatory processes in the dementia induced by mCRP. Therefore, locally deposited mCRP in the infarcted brain may be a novel biomarker for AD prognosis, and its antibody blockade opens up therapeutic opportunities for reducing post-stroke AD risk.

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