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    Nanostructured lipid carriers deliver resveratrol, restoring attenuated dilation in small coronary arteries, via the AMPK pathway

    Astley, C, Houacine, C, Zaabalawi, A, Wilkinson, F ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0358-3489, Lightfoot, AP, Alexander, Y, Whitehead, D, Singh, KK and Azzawi, M ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6238-9777 (2021) Nanostructured lipid carriers deliver resveratrol, restoring attenuated dilation in small coronary arteries, via the AMPK pathway. Biomedicines, 9 (12). ISSN 2227-9059

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    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are an emerging drug delivery platform for improved drug stability and the bioavailability of antihypertensive drugs and vasoprotective nutraceutical compounds, such as resveratrol (RV). The objective of this study was to ascertain NLCs’ potential to deliver RV and restore attenuated dilator function, using an ex vivo model of acute hyperten-sion. Trimyristin–triolein NLCs were synthesized and loaded with RV. The uptake of RV-NLCs by human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) maintained their viability and reduced both mitochondrial and cytosolic superoxide levels. Acute pressure elevation in isolated coronary arteries significantly attenuated endothelial-dependent dilator responses, which were reversed following incubation in RV-NLCs, superoxide dismutase or apocynin (p < 0.0001). RV-NLCs demonstrated a five-fold increase in potency in comparison to RV solution. At elevated pressure, in the presence of RV-NLCs, incubation with Nω-nitro-l-arginine (L-NNA) or indomethacin resulted in a significant reduction in the restored dilator component (p < 0.0001), whereas apamin and TRAM-34 had no overall effect. Incubation with the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor dorsomorphin significantly attenuated dilator responses (p < 0.001), whereas the SIRT-1 inhibitor EX-527 had no effect. RV-NLCs improved the impaired endothelial-dependent dilation of small coronary arteries, following acute pressure elevation, via NO and downstream COX elements, mediated by AMPK. We suggest that RV-NLCs are an effective delivery modality for improved potency and sustained drug release into the vasculature. Our findings have important implications for the future design and implementation of antihypertensive treatment strategies.

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