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    Fate of endosulfan in ginseng farm and effect of granular biochar treatment on endosulfan accumulation in ginseng

    Lee, Deuk-Yeong, Choi, Geun-Hyoung, Bae, Young-Suk, Lee, Sung-Woo, Kim, Sang-Kuk, Bae, Ji-Yeon, Song, A-Reum, Moon, Bo-Yeon, Megson, David ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8881-3860, Oh, Kyeong-Yeol and Kim, Jin-Hyo (2022) Fate of endosulfan in ginseng farm and effect of granular biochar treatment on endosulfan accumulation in ginseng. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 44 (11). pp. 3953-3965. ISSN 0269-4042

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    Endosulfan was widely used as an insecticide in the agricultural sector before its environmental persistence was fully understood. Although its fate and transport in the environment have been studied, the effects of historic endosulfan residues in soil and its bioaccumulation in crops are not well understood. This knowledge gap was addressed by investigating the dissipation and bioaccumulation of endosulfan in ginseng as a perennial crop in fresh and aged endosulfan-contaminated fields. In addition, the effect of granular biochar (GBC) treatment on the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of endosulfan residue in ginseng was assessed. The 50% dissipation time (DT50) of the total endosulfan was over 770 days in both the fresh and aged soils under mulching conditions. This was at least twofold greater than the reported (6– > 200 days) in arable soil. Among the endosulfan congeners, the main contributor to the soil residue was endosulfan sulfate, as observed from 150 days after treatment. The BAF for the 2-year-old ginseng was similar in the fresh (1.682–2.055) and aged (1.372–2.570) soils, whereas the BAF for the 3-year-old ginseng in the aged soil (1.087–1.137) was lower than that in the fresh soil (1.771–2.387). The treatment with 0.3 wt% GBC extended the DT50 of endosulfan in soil; however, this could successfully suppress endosulfan uptake, and reduced the BAFs by 66.5–67.7% in the freshly contaminated soil and 32.3–41.4% in the aged soil. Thus, this adsorbent treatment could be an effective, financially viable, and sustainable option to protect human health by reducing plant uptake of endosulfan from contaminated soils.

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