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    Nanoscience-Led Antimicrobial Surface Engineering to Prevent Infections

    Zare, Mina, Zare, Mohamad, Butler, Jonathan A and Ramakrishna, Seeram (2021) Nanoscience-Led Antimicrobial Surface Engineering to Prevent Infections. ACS Applied Nano Materials, 4. pp. 4269-4383. ISSN 2574-0970

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    Abstract

    One of the major complications associated with the implantation of biomedical devices regardless of their function is biomaterial-associated infection. Infections are generally initiated by opportunistic bacterial colonization and biofilm development on the surface of implanted biomaterials, rendering the infection impervious to host defenses and antimicrobials. Moreover, the infection around soft tissues also has a significant role in biomaterial-associated infections. It is well-documented that the nature of an implant infection is influenced by the design and composition of the implant biomaterial, host environment, clinical procedure, and patient hygiene. Herein, we explore the adhesion mechanisms of bacteria to the biomaterials and review systematic antimicrobial strategies to reduce the contamination of biomaterials and underlying implant infection using Staphylococcus aureus as a model bacterial pathogen. Also, we discuss the preventive and therapeutic strategies and explain the future perspectives for the development of nanoscience-based strategies for the engineering of antimicrobial surfaces, including the nanostructure surface, microbe–surface interactions, synthetic nanostructured surfaces, dynamic surfaces with antifouling agents, and coated surfaces with antimicrobial properties (polymer coating, surface release active coating).

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