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    On the Design and Implementation of a Blockchain Enabled E-Voting Application within IoT-Oriented Smart Cities

    Rathee, G, Iqbal, R, Waqar, O and Bashir, AK (2021) On the Design and Implementation of a Blockchain Enabled E-Voting Application within IoT-Oriented Smart Cities. IEEE Access, 9. pp. 34165-34176. ISSN 2169-3536

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    A smart city refers to an intelligent environment obtained by deploying all available resources and recent technologies in a coordinated and smart manner. Intelligent sensors (Internet of Things (IoT) devices) along with 5G technology working mutually are steadily becoming more pervasive and accomplish users' desires more effectively. Among a variety of IoT use cases, e-voting is a considerable application of IoT that relegates it to the next phase in the growth of technologies related to smart cities. In conventional applications, all the devices are often assumed to be cooperative and trusted. However, in practice, devices may be disrupted by the intruders to behave maliciously with the aim of degradation of the network services. Therefore, the privacy and security flaws in the e-voting systems in particular lead to a huge problem where intruders may perform a number of frauds for rigging the polls. Thus, the potential challenge is to distinguish the legitimate IoT devices from the malicious ones by computing their trust values through social optimizer in order to establish a legitimate communication environment. Further, in order to prevent from future modifications of data captured by smart devices, a Blockchain is maintained where blocks of all legitimate IoT devices are recorded. This article has introduced a secure and transparent e-voting mechanism through IoT devices using Blockchain technology with the aim of detecting and resolving the various threats caused by an intruder at various levels. Further, in order to validate the proposed mechanism, it is analyzed against various security parameters such as message alteration, Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack and authentication delay.

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