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Understanding the effects of nutrition and post-exercise nutrition on skeletal muscle protein turnover: insights from stable isotope studies

Joanisse, Sophie and McKendry, James and Lim, Changhyun and Nunes, Everson A and Stokes, Tanner and Mcleod, Jonathan C and Phillips, Stuart M (2021) Understanding the effects of nutrition and post-exercise nutrition on skeletal muscle protein turnover: insights from stable isotope studies. Clinical Nutrition Open Science, 36. pp. 56-77. ISSN 2667-2685

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Abstract

Skeletal muscle is the largest organ of the human body and plays a pivotal role in whole-body homeostasis through the maintenance of physical and metabolic health. Establishing strategies aimed at increasing the amount, and minimising loss, of muscle mass are of upmost importance. Muscle mass is primarily dictated by the meal-to-meal fluctuations in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB), each of which can be quantified through the use of stable isotopically labelled tracers. Importantly, both MPS and MPB can be influenced by external factors such as nutritional manipulation, specifically protein ingestion, and changes in loading via exercise. To date, research involving stable isotopic tracers has focused on determining the optimal dose, timing surrounding bouts of exercise, distribution and composition of protein to maximally stimulate MPS and inhibit MPB, both at rest and following exercise. In this review we focus on the use of these stable isotopically-labeled tracers to unravel the intricacies of skeletal muscle protein turnover in response to specific nutritional interventions.

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