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    Dimensions of corruption in Pakistan: a systems thinking approach and qualitative analysis

    Ullah, Muhammad Aman, Urquhart, Cathy ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7754-6085, Arthanari, Tiru and Ahmed, Eatzaz (2022) Dimensions of corruption in Pakistan: a systems thinking approach and qualitative analysis. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 39 (2). pp. 324-338. ISSN 1092-7026

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    Abstract

    Over the past few decades, many studies of corruption have been carried out. These studies have mainly focused on specific aspects of corruption such as economic issues, legal issues, social propositions, national development and economic policy. This study builds a systems thinking model of corruption, which helps in the understanding of corruption and acts as an input into future policymaking on corruption. Data for the qualitative analysis come from 198 interviews (including 43 in‐depth interviews) conducted in Pakistan. The main contribution of the study is the increased understanding and insights about issues of values, social aspects, inflation, government size and political norms when considering perceptions of corruption in Pakistan. Some of our key findings, such as the effect of inflation, government size, transparency in international negotiations and the juxtaposition of religious values with corruption, have not been widely discussed in the literature.

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