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    Polyamine biomarkers as indicators of human disease

    Amin, Mohsin, Tang, Shiying, Shalamanova, Liliana, Taylor, Rebecca L, Wylie, Stephen, Abdullah, Badr M and Whitehead, Kathryn A (2021) Polyamine biomarkers as indicators of human disease. Biomarkers, 26 (2). pp. 77-94. ISSN 1354-750X

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    The significant increase of periodontitis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), Alzheimer's disease and cancer can be attributed to an ageing population. Each disease produces a range of biomarkers that can be indicative of disease onset and progression. Biomarkers are defined as cellular (intra/extracellular components and whole cells), biochemical (metabolites, ions and toxins) or molecular (nucleic acids, proteins and lipids) alterations which are measurable in biological media such as human tissues, cells or fluids. An interesting group of biomarkers that merit further investigation are the polyamines. Polyamines are a group of molecules consisting of cadaverine, putrescine, spermine and spermidine and have been implicated in the development of a range of systemic diseases, in part due to their production in periodontitis. Cadaverine and putrescine within the periodontal environment have demonstrated cell signalling interfering abilities, by way of leukocyte migration disruption. The polyamines spermine and spermidine in tumour cells have been shown to inhibit cellular apoptosis, effectively prolonging tumorigenesis and continuation of cancer within the host. Polyamine degradation products such as acrolein have been shown to exacerbate renal damage in CKD patients. Thus, the use of such molecules has merit to be utilized in the early indication of such diseases in patients.

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