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Second Primary Malignancy After Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: a Population-Based Study

Lenzi, Luana and Lee-Jones, Lisa and Mostofa, Maruf and Andrade, Diancarlos P and Ribeiro, Raul C and Figueiredo, Bonald C (2020) Second Primary Malignancy After Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: a Population-Based Study. Cancers. ISSN 2072-6694

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Abstract

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), is now highly curable with treatment approaches that include all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The high incidence of APL in the Hispanics suggests an association with genetic variants in this population. Information on second primary malignancies (SPMs) in patients with APL is limited. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to interrogate whether the rate of SPMs in patients with APL was associated with ethnicity and/or ATRA treatment. Between 2000 and 2016, 116 cases of SPM were diagnosed among 4019 patients with APL. The mean age at diagnosis of primary APL was 53.9 years (±15.7 years), and the mean age at diagnosis of SPMs was 59.0 years (±14.5 years). Comparisons with 3774 APL survivors who did not develop SPMs revealed that age ≥40 years at diagnosis of APL (p < 0.001) and non-Hispanic white ethnicity (p = 0.025) were associated with SPMs in APL survivors. Salivary gland, liver, and soft tissue malignancies were significantly more common in patients with primary APL than in individuals with non-APL malignancies. A risk analysis comparing patients who had APL with patients who had non-APL AML suggests that SPMs after APL is associated with ATRA treatment. Therefore, patient follow-up after APL should focus on early diagnosis of SPMs.

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