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    Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic neuropathy and painful diabetic neuropathy in primary and secondary health care in Qatar

    Ponirakis, Georgios, Elhadd, Tarik, Chinnaiyan, Subitha, Hamza, Abdul H, Sheik, Sanaulla, Kalathingal, Mohamed A, Anodiyil, Mohamed S, Dabbous, Zeinab, Siddique, MashhoodA, Almuhannadi, Hamad, Petropoulos, Ioannis, Khan, Adnan, Ashawesh, Khaled AE, Dukhan, Khaled M, Mahfoud, Ziyad R, Zirie, Mahmoud A, Jayyousi, Amin, Murgatroyd, Christopher ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6885-7794, Slevin, Mark ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3767-4861 and Malik, Rayaz A (2021) Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic neuropathy and painful diabetic neuropathy in primary and secondary health care in Qatar. Journal of Diabetes Investigation, 12 (4). pp. 592-600. ISSN 2040-1116

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    AIMS/INTRODUCTION:This study determined the prevalence and risk factors for DPN and pDPN in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary health care (PHC) and secondary health care (SHC) in Qatar. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This is a cross-sectional multi-center study. Adults with T2D were randomly enrolled from four PHC centres and two Diabetes Centres in SHC in Qatar. Subjects underwent assessment of clinical and metabolic parameters, DPN and pDPN. RESULTS:1,386 subjects with T2D (297 from PHC and 1,089 from SHC) were recruited. The prevalence of DPN (14.8% vs 23.9%, P=0.001) and pDPN (18.1% vs 37.5%, P<0.0001) was significantly lower in PHC compared to SHC, whilst those with DPN at high risk for DFU (31.8% vs 40.0%, P=0.3) was comparable. The prevalence of undiagnosed DPN (79.5% vs 82.3%, P=0.66) was comparably high but undiagnosed pDPN (24.1% vs 71.5%, P<0.0001) was lower in PHC compared to SHC. The odds of DPN and pDPN increased with age and diabetes duration and DPN increased with poor glycemic control, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, whilst pDPN increased with obesity and reduced physical activity. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of DPN and pDPN in T2D is lower in PHC compared to SHC and is attributed to overall better control of risk factors and referral bias due to patients with poorly managed complications being referred to SHC. However, ~80% of patients had not been previously diagnosed with DPN in PHC and SHC. Further, we identify a number of modifiable risk factors for PDN and pDPN.

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