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The Prospective Study of Epigenetic Regulatory Profiles in Sport and Exercise Monitored Through Chromosome Conformation Signatures

Hall, Elliott and Murgatroyd, Christopher and Stebbings, Georgina and Cunniffe, Brian and Harle, Lee and Salter, Matthew and Ramadass, Aroul and Westra, Jurjen and Hunter, Ewan and Akoulitchev, Alexandre and Williams, Alun (2020) The Prospective Study of Epigenetic Regulatory Profiles in Sport and Exercise Monitored Through Chromosome Conformation Signatures. Genes, 11 (8). p. 905.

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Abstract

The integration of genetic and environmental factors that regulate the gene expression patterns associated with exercise adaptation is mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The organisation of the human genome within three-dimensional space, known as chromosome conformation, has recently been shown as a dynamic epigenetic regulator of gene expression, facilitating the interaction of distal genomic regions due to tight and regulated packaging of chromosomes in the cell nucleus. Technological advances in the study of chromosome conformation mean a new class of biomarker—the chromosome conformation signature (CCS)—can identify chromosomal interactions across several genomic loci as a collective marker of an epigenomic state. Investigative use of CCSs in biological and medical research shows promise in identifying the likelihood that a disease state is present or absent, as well as an ability to prospectively stratify individuals according to their likely response to medical intervention. The association of CCSs with gene expression patterns suggests that there are likely to be CCSs that respond, or regulate the response, to exercise and related stimuli. The present review provides a contextual background to CCS research and a theoretical framework discussing the potential uses of this novel epigenomic biomarker within sport and exercise science and medicine.

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