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    Internet of Things: Evolution and technologies from a security perspective

    Ande, R, Adebisi, B ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9071-9120, Hammoudeh, M ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1058-0996 and Saleem, J (2019) Internet of Things: Evolution and technologies from a security perspective. Sustainable Cities and Society, 54. ISSN 2210-6707

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    © 2019 Elsevier Ltd In recent years, IoT has developed into many areas of life including smart homes, smart cities, agriculture, offices, and workplaces. Everyday physical items such as lights, locks and industrial machineries can now be part of the IoT ecosystem. IoT has redefined the management of critical and non-critical systems with the aim of making our lives more safe, efficient and comfortable. As a result, IoT technology is having a huge positive impact on our lives. However, in addition to these positives, IoT systems have also attracted negative attention from malicious users who aim to infiltrate weaknesses within IoT systems for their own gain, referred to as cyber security attacks. By creating an introduction to IoT, this paper seeks to highlight IoT cyber security vulnerabilities and mitigation techniques to the reader. The paper is suitable for developers, practitioners, and academics, particularly from fields such as computer networking, information or communication technology or electronics. The paper begins by introducing IoT as the culmination of two hundred years of evolution within communication technologies. Around 2014, IoT reached consumers, early products were mostly small closed IoT networks, followed by large networks such as smart cities, and continuing to evolve into Next Generation Internet; internet systems which incorporate human values. Following this evolutionary introduction, IoT architectures are compared and some of the technologies that are part of each architectural layer are introduced. Security threats within each architectural layer and some mitigation strategies are discussed, finally, the paper concludes with some future developments.

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