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    EXPRESS: Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Methods to Access the Metal Solubility of Aerosols in Artificial Lung Fluid

    de Oliveira, Andrea, Polezer, Gabriela, Godoi, Ricardo HM, Vermaak, Sanja Potgieter, de Souza, Rodrigo AF, Andreoli, Rita V and Yamamoto, Carlos I (2020) EXPRESS: Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Methods to Access the Metal Solubility of Aerosols in Artificial Lung Fluid. Applied Spectroscopy, 74 (8). pp. 932-939. ISSN 0003-7028

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    Recent studies to quantify the health risks that fine particulate matter with anaerodynamic lessthan 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) poseuse in vitro approaches. One of these approaches is to incubate PM2.5in artificial lysosomal fluid for a given period at body temperature. These body fluids used have a high ionic strength and as such can be challenging samples to analyzewith atomic spectroscopy techniques. AsPM2.5isaprimary healthhazard because it is tiny enough to penetrate deep into the lungsand could, in addition, dissolve in the lung fluid it is important to quantify elements of toxic and/or carcinogenic concerns, reliably and accurately. Sophisticated instrumentation and expensive pre-treatment of challenging samples are not always available, especially in developing countries. Toevaluatethe applicability of GFAAS without Zeeman correction capability to detect trace quantities of heavy metals leached from PM2.5on to artificial lungfluid, uni-and multivariate approaches have been used for optimization purposes. The limits of quantification, LOQ,obtained by theoptimizedmethod were:2μgL-1(Cu), 3μg L-1(Cr), 1μg L-1(Mn) and 10μg L-1(Pb). The addition/recovery experiments had amean accuracy of: (Cu) 99 ± 7%; 110± 8% (Cr); 95 ± 9% (Mn) and 96 ± 11% (Pb). The average soluble fractions of PM2.5incubated in artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF)for 1 hour were:1.2 0.01ng m-3Cu, 0.40.01ng m-3Cr,0.60.01ng m-3Mnand4.8 0.03ng m-3Pb.Using historical elemental 2averagesof PM2.5 in Curitiba(Cu 3.3 ng m-3, Cr 2.1 ng m-3, Mn 6.1 ng m-3, Pb 21 ng m-3), the percentage bioaccessibility were determined to beCu 38%; Cr 20%; Mn 10%; and Pb 23%.The elemental values of the atmospheric soluble fraction of Cu, Cr and,Mn were below the inhalation risk concentrations.However, for Pb, the atmospheric soluble fraction exceeded the inhalation unit risk of 0.012 ng m-3.This robust and straightforward GF AASmethod is pivotal for low and middle-income countries were most air pollution adverse effects occur andestablished lower-costtechnologies are likelyunavailable.

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