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    Kinematic parameters after repeated swimming efforts in higher and lower proficiency swimmers and para-swimmers

    dos Santos, Karini, Bento, Paulo, Payton, Carl ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8896-9753 and Rodacki, Andre (2020) Kinematic parameters after repeated swimming efforts in higher and lower proficiency swimmers and para-swimmers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 91 (4). pp. 574-582. ISSN 0270-1367

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    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine changes in swimming parameters, stroke coordination, and symmetry after repeated high-intensity swimming efforts in swimmers of different performance levels and para-swimmers. Method: Forty swimmers (20 able-bodied, allocated to higher and lower performance groups—G1 and G2, respectively—and 20 impaired swimmers—S5 to S10) were recorded by four underwater cameras while performing repeated 50 m maximum front-crawl swimming with a ten-second interval for each time endured by the swimmer. A cycle stroke was digitized using SIMI Reality Motion Systems in the first and last trials to analyze the kinematic parameters. The comparison among groups and conditions was performed by Mixed ANOVA Models with p < .05. Results: For all groups, swimming velocity, stroke rate, and stroke index showed reduction over time, while stroke length and intracyclic velocity variation did not show significant changes. Conclusions: Training to maintain stroke rate is necessary to support performance since it is the main cause of velocity decrease. Stroke dimensions and individual underwater phases were not sufficient to distinguish groups or conditions. Hand velocity decreased probably due to a decline in energy capacity, propulsive force and passive drag caused by the fatigue process.

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