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    The influence that different urban development models has on PM2.5 elemental and bioaccessible profiles

    Polezer, Gabriela, Oliveira, Andrea, Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja, Godoi, Ana FL, de Souza, Rodrigo AF, Yamamoto, Carlos I, Andreoli, Rita V, Medeiros, Adan S, Machado, Cristine MD, dos Santos, Erickson O, de André, Paulo A, Pauliquevis, Theotonio, Saldiva, Paulo HN, Martin, Scot T and Godoi, Ricardo HM (2019) The influence that different urban development models has on PM2.5 elemental and bioaccessible profiles. Scientific Reports, 9. ISSN 2045-2322

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    Limited studies have reported on in-vitro analysis of PM2.5 but as far as the authors are aware, bioaccessibility of PM2.5 in artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) has not been linked to urban development models before. The Brazilian cities Manaus (Amazon) and Curitiba (South region) have different geographical locations, climates, and urban development strategies. Manaus drives its industrialization using the free trade zone policy and Curitiba adopted a services centered economy driven by sustainability. Therefore, these two cities were used to illustrate the influence that these different models have on PM2.5 in vitro profile. We compared PM2.5 mass concentrations and the average total elemental and bioaccessible profiles for Cu, Cr, Mn, and Pb. The total average elemental concentrations followed Mn > Pb > Cu > Cr in Manaus and Pb > Mn > Cu > Cr in Curitiba. Mn had the lowest solubility while Cu showed the highest bioaccessibility (100%) and was significantly higher in Curitiba than Manaus. Cr and Pb had higher bioaccessibility in Manaus than Curitiba. Despite similar mass concentrations, the public health risk in Manaus was higher than in Curitiba indicating that the free trade zone had a profound effect on the emission levels and sources of airborne PM. These findings illustrate the importance of adopting sustainable air quality strategies in urban planning.

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